Agreement between Turkey and Saudi Arabia23 Jan 2022
“Hawks are quite vicious scavengers and birds, but there can be a coexistence between humans and falcons, where a bond can be made and a relationship fostered through special training and proper handling.” There have been discussions to arrange a meeting between Erdogan and the Saudi prince in Qatar, a Turkish official and a Gulf official said with knowledge of the visit plans. Improving relations with Turkey is a reasonable option to help Saudi Arabia out of the current spiral, especially if the US and the new Iranian government reach an agreement on the implementation of the JCPOA. The Treaty of Lausanne led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire.  As a result of the treaty, the Ottoman national debt was divided between Turkey and the countries that emerged from the former Ottoman Empire.  The Strait Convention lasted only thirteen years and was replaced in 1936 by the Montreux Convention on the Regulation of the Strait. The customs restrictions provided for in the Treaty were revised shortly thereafter. The dispute between Ankara and Abu Dhabi has reverberated throughout the Middle East, leading to a proxy conflict in Libya, as well as tensions in the Gulf and the eastern Mediterranean. Tensions have also spread on social media, with taunts and taunts from officials, state-affiliated accounts and government supporters. Governments also differ when it comes to Israel. Saudi Arabia has yet to sign an agreement to normalize relations with the country, but it`s no secret that the kingdom and the Israeli government have been improving their behind-the-scenes relations for years. A secret annex to the treaty entitled “Declaration of Amnesty” granted the authors immunity from all crimes committed between 1914 and 1922, in particular the genocide of Armenians, Assyrians and the Greek genocide, then illegal under international law.   The treaty thus put an end to efforts to prosecute Ottoman war criminals.   Thus, the treaty codified impunity for the Armenian genocide.
 Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester Concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several groups, including the Committee Against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds required by the Constitution.  As a result, Turkey cancelled the concession.  Given the worrying trends for Riyadh, it would be impossible for Saudi Arabia to maintain its current foreign policy preferences if it were to avoid falling into regional oblivion. Improving relations with Turkey is a reasonable option to help Saudi Arabia out of the current spiral, especially if the US and the new Iranian government reach an agreement on the implementation of the JCPOA. However, the decision to improve bilateral relations does not rest solely with Turkey, both sides must agree that better relations between Riyadh and Ankara would further their mutual interests in the region and beyond. He and Erdogan then oversaw the signing of nearly a dozen cooperation agreements, including in the areas of trade, energy and the environment, as well as agreements allowing for direct investment and cooperation between the stock exchanges and central banks of the two countries. Relations between Turkey and Saudi Arabia began in 1932 after the establishment of the new Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the first phase of relations, Saudi Arabia and Turkey shared a cordial relationship, while Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was interested in keeping Turkey safe and friendly with the international community and tried to stay away from religious discord.
 Turkey and Saudi Arabia did not join World War II and maintained their neutrality. After receiving the credentials from Fatih Ulusoy, Turkey`s new ambassador to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia maintained a positive stance on improving relations with Riyadh, noting that “there may soon be positive developments in Turkey`s relations with Saudi Arabia.” Although rapprochement efforts between Turkey and Saudi Arabia were launched long before Egypt and the UAE considered repairing fences with Ankara, no concrete diplomatic breakthrough has yet taken place. The 2. In October 2018, Saudi journalist and Washington Post author Jamal Khashoggi was killed at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul; The move was seen as a turning point for future hostility between Turkey and Saudi Arabia. It has been widely claimed that he was killed by the Saudi government, including Erdogan, although he refrained from directly criticizing Saudi Arabia and instead suggested that the fault lies with Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman.   Turkey has played a very delicate role in the proxy conflict between Iran and Saudi Arabia. Although they are as Sunni as the Saudis, experiences with the Salafist movement and past pride in being a Sunni empire have made Saudi Turkey extremely suspicious and rejected Saudi attempts to fight in Yemen.  Turkey and Saudi Arabia, too, are still hesitating between antagonism and alliance. In the Syrian civil war, Turkey and Saudi Arabia are on the side of the Iranian-backed Syrian opposition to Bashar al-Assad, but Turkey has tried to support moderate forces while Saudi Arabia has invaded Syria by supporting opposition radicals, making Turkey hostile.
  The Russian intervention forced Turkey and Saudi Arabia to compromise, but distrust of each other hampered the process. Relations between Turkey and Saudi Arabia have been strained for years In March, the Turkish government called on broadcasters with ties to the Muslim Brotherhood to moderate their criticism of Egypt. Last week, Erdogan said Turkey would seek to strengthen its “historic” friendship with Egypt. This was preceded by direct talks between high-ranking diplomats from both countries – the first in eight years. According to a 2013 Pew global opinion poll, 26 percent of Turks express a positive opinion of Saudi Arabia, while 53 percent express a negative opinion.  In recent years, tensions between Saudi Arabia and Turkey have increased and a growing proxy conflict between the two states has begun.  From his point of view, two things forced Turkey to adopt this position. The first of these was the rapprochement between the Gulf States. “This has made Turkey`s previous political line superfluous,” Hakura said. “So far, it has benefited from tensions in the Gulf.
Now that`s no longer possible,” Hakura said. The second of these was economic relations with Egypt. According to Hawsawi, the cuneiform script spread throughout Mesopotamia from about 3.C 200 BC and was used until 100 AD. The hieroglyphic script was used in Egypt by 4,000 B.C., while the Ugaritic script was used in northern Syria. The Sinaitic script dates back to 1,400 BC.C. and was invented by a group of Canaanites who worked in the turquoise and copper mines of the Sinai desert. Meanwhile, the Phoenician script, which dates back to 1,000 BC.C., and the Punic script spread throughout North Africa from 300 BC. C to 300 AD. “The existence of Scriptures in civilizations of all kinds testifies to its importance for codification, communication and relations between societies,” Hawsawi said. Throughout the Arabian Peninsula, written inscriptions provide clues about Arab communities that lived in different regions. Some of the inscriptions had a religious aspect and focused on the names of the gods and religious rituals, while others were more social and discussed personal status, marriage, divorce, and people`s names.
The engravings also included details of tribal names and places, as well as occupations and crafts, trade regulations, currencies, exports, and imports. Turkey and Saudi Arabia first found themselves in an alliance when the Arab Spring broke out, mainly because of the Syrian civil war, when Ankara and Riyadh were openly opposed to Bashar al-Assad, and so Saudi Arabia and Turkey both funded various anti-Assad forces in the conflict, hoping to expel the Syrian dictator.    However, Turkey also showed its support for the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), which was rejected by Saudi Arabia, which had created a turbulent atmosphere among Riyadh. In 2013, the Egyptian coup erupted when Mohamed Morsi, then a member of the Muslim Brotherhood and Then-Egyptian president, was violently deposed by pro-Saudi Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, Turkey had condemned the move, but it was the first sign of divergence between Ankara and Riyadh.   Such a direct meeting seemed unlikely this week, but could take place soon, one of the sources said. .